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Walters Ms. W.165, Loftie Hours
This mid-fifteenth-century illuminated Book of Hours is written entirely in Dutch on fine parchment and is remarkable for its eighteen grisaille miniatures. This technique, wherein the figures are modeled primarily in a gray wash, became a favorite in the Netherlands. The hand behind the miniatures in this manuscript has been identified with a group of artists known as the Masters of the Delft Grisailles. The manuscript has been grouped with more than a dozen related works, including New York, Morgan Ms. M.349; London, Victoria and Albert Geo. Reid Ms. 32; Leiden, BPL Ms. 224; Brussels, BR Ms. 21696; Antwerp, Plantin Moretus Ms. 49; and The Hague, KB Ms. 74 G 35. The manuscript is comprised of 152 folios and is almost completely intact, lacking only two miniatures. It retains its original brown leather binding decorated with mythological beasts and a now illegible inscription. The calendar is for the Use of Utrecht, which helps localize its original ownership, as might a mostly erased ownership inscription that has been partially recovered. Good impressions of two circular pilgrim badges, now removed, are visible on fol. 112v.
Middle of the 15th century CE
Supplied name: Masters of the Delft Grisailles
The primary language in this manuscript is Dutch; Flemish.
Thin to medium-weight, clean white vellum, well surfaced on both sides with very few hair follicles showing; miniatures on heavier parchment
Foliation in pencil in upper right corners of rectos
Formula: i, 1(8,-1,2), 2(6), 3(10,-1,9), 4(10,-4,8), 5(6,-1,5), 6(6), 7-11(8), 12(8,-8), 13(8), 14(6), 15(8,-8), 16(12,-5,9,12), 17(10,-6,8,10), 18(10,-6,8,10) 19(8,-7), 20-21(8), i
Comments: Quires begin on fols. 1(1), 7(2), 13(3), 21(4), 29(5), 33(6), 39(7), 47(8), 55(9), 63(10), 71(11), 79(12), 86(13), 94(14), 100(15), 107(16), 116(17), 123(18), 130(19), 137(20), 145(21); full-page miniatures on singletons; lacking full-page miniatures before fols. 16r and 18r (as shown by offsets); two other miniatures possibly misbound: Man of Sorrows (fol. 79v) may have been intended for or originally placed facing the prayer to Christ (fol. 101r) and Last Judgment (fol. 100v) may have been intended for or originally placed facing the Seven Penitential Psalms and the litany (fol. 80r)
9.5 cm wide by 14.5 cm high
5.3 cm wide by 7.6 cm high
- Columns: 1
- Ruled lines: 16
- Ruled in brown with single vertical and double horizontal bounding lines, full across
- Title: Book of Hours
- Hand note: Written in Gothic bookhand; one hand responsible for the majority of text; a different, less professional hand responsible for added prayers in the same script on fols. 114v-115v and 128v-130r
- Decoration note: Full-page grisaille miniatures throughout; baguette along the left side of the text column, with extensions, present on most folios commencing major new texts; ordinary leaves with decorated initials (4 to 5 lines), done in gold on red and blue cusped fields with white tracery and/or blue with white tracery on cusped gold fields, enclosing painted foliage and flowers; ordinary initials with extensions from the initial into the upper or left margin; capitals stroked with red; red rubrics; alternating red and blue initials throughout (1 to 2 lines)
- Title: Calendar
- Rubric: Januarius
- Text note: Use of Utrecht; about half full; graded red and black
- Title: Short Hours of the Cross
- Rubric: Dit is tcorte cruus getide
- Incipit: O Heer du salste opdoen mine lippen
- Decoration note: Full-page miniatures of the Passion cycle on fols. 13v, 20v, 23v, 26v, and 29v; missing miniatures before prime (fol. 16r) and terce (fol. 18r)
- Title: Hours of the Virgin
- Incipit: Here du sulste vp doen mine lippen
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature on fol. 32v
- Title: Seven Penitential Psalms and litany
- Rubric: Dit sijn die vii Spalmen
- Incipit: Here in dynre uerboghenheit en straffe
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature on fol. 79v
- Title: Prayer for the dead
- Rubric: Dit ghebet leestmen voir alle zielen
- Incipit: Weest ghegruet alle ghelovighe zielen
- Title: Three prayers to the Virgin
- Rubric: Dit is een goet ghebet van onser Vrouwen
- Incipit: Heilighe Vrouwe, Gods moeder, ontfaet mijn (fol. 96v); O alre heilichste, o alre suetste, oalre ontfermhertichste (fol. 97v); God gruet u coninghinne der hemelen (fol. 98v)
- Decoration note: Decorated initial on fol. 96v
- Title: Two prayers to Christ
- Incipit: Almachtighe scepper alre dinghen (fol. 101r); Ic danck dij lieve here dattu dijn martelie (fol. 106r)
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature on fol. 100v
- Title: Prayer to the face of Christ
- Rubric: Veronica
- Incipit: God gruet u heilich aenschijn Gods ons verlossers
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature on fol. 107v
- Title: Prayer to the Five Wounds of Christ
- Incipit: Weest ghegruet heilighe Vijf Wonden mijns heren
- Decoration note: Full page miniature on fol. 110v
- Title: Prayer to the Holy Cross
- Incipit: O gloriose Cruus, bloeyende groen hout vol alre genaden
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature on fol. 113v
- Title: Prayer to Christ
- Incipit: [H]eere Jhu Xpe die te compleet
- Text note: This prayer is a later addition to the manuscript, written on blank folios in the sixteenth century
- Hand note: Written in Dutch textualis script by a different, later hand than the rest of the manuscript, likely the same hand that added the prayer on fols. 128v-130r
- Title: Suffrages for saints
- Rubric: Een goet ghebet van s' Anthoniis
- Incipit: Anthonius heilighe vrient Gods die menich
- Contents: Suffrages for SS. Anthony (fol. 117r-v), John the Baptist (fol. 119r-v), Sebastian (fols. 121r-122r), Catherine (fol. 124r-v), Agnes (fol. 126r-v), and Barbara (fol. 128r-v)
- Decoration note: Full-page miniatures accompanying the text for each saint on fols. 116v, 118v, 120v, 123v, 125v, and 127v; impressions of pilgrim badges, now removed, slightly visible on fol. 122v
- Title: Luke's account of the Incarnation
- Incipit: In dese seste maent wert die ingel Gabriel
- Text note: Dutch translation of Luke 1:26-38, added to blank folios in the sixteenth century
- Hand note: Written in Dutch textualis by a different, later hand than the rest of the manuscript, likely the same hand that added the prayer on fol. 115r-v
- Title: Office of the Dead
- Rubric: Dit is die Vigelie in Duutsche
- Incipit: Mi hebben ombevanghen
- Text note: Three-lesson version of the Office of the Dead
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature on fol. 130v
- Title: Man of Sorrows in the tomb with the instruments of the Passion
- Form: Full-page miniature
- Text: Seven Penitential Psalms
- Label: This miniature may originally have been placed facing the prayer to Christ on fol. 101r.
- Title: Last Judgment
- Form: Full-page miniature
- Text: Prayers to the limbs of Christ
- Label: This miniature may originally have been placed facing the Seven Penitential Psalms and litany on fol. 80r.
- Title: Holy Cross with symbols of the four Evangelists
- Form: Full-page miniature
- Text: Prayer to the Holy Cross
The binding is original.
Probably fifteenth-century; worn brown calf over boards, panel-stamped in blind; frame of double fillets enclosing two rectangular panel stamps, each 5.0 x 7.1 cm, of two files of three mythological beasts and grotesques, surrounded by an inscription in Gothic script (inscription illegible and beasts not identifiable because of wear to the binding); sewn on four raised bands, rebacked; post-medieval brass catch and clasp; all edges gilt
Late fifteenth-century ownership inscription of Margriete Rogm[arie?]: Desen boeck hoert toe (margriete rogm[arie?] wonende te bruessel int spe[..]sen hof); translated: This book belongs to Margriete rogm[arie?] who lives in the spe[..]sen hof in Brussels; inscription partially erased but partly legible under ultraviolet light (the latter portion indicated by round parenthesis); transliteration and translation by Marrow (fol. 152r)
Rev. W. J. Loftie (1839-1911)
Leon Gruel, no. 1164 (bookplate, front pastedown)
Henry Walters, Baltimore, acquired from Gruel prior to 1931
Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters bequest
Cockerell, Sydney Carlye. Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts. London: Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1908, no. 243, pl. 149.
Byvanck, Alexander Willem, and Godefridus Johannes Hoogewerf. La miniature hollandaise dans les manuscrits des 14e, 15e et 16e siècles. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1922-26, p. 24, no. 45, pl. 13.
Da Costa Greene, Belle, and Meta P. Harrsen. The Pierpont Morgan Library, Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts Held at the New York Public Library. New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, 1934, no. 102.
De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 787, no. 192.
Miner, Dorothy. "Dutch Illuminated Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery." Connoisseur Yearbook (1954-55): 75-76.
Marrow, James. "A Book of Hours from the Circle of the Master of the Berlin Passion: Notes on the Relationship between Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Illumination and Printmaking in the Rhenish Lowlands." Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 609, no. 62, pl. 46 (fol. 23v).
Marrow, James. Passion Iconography in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance: A Study of the Transformation of Sacred Metaphor into Descriptive Narrative. Ars Neerlandica. Vol. 1. Kortrijk, Belgium: Van Ghemmert, 1979, p. 225, no. 8b.
Farquhar, James Douglas. "Manuscript Production and Evidence for Localizing and Dating Fifteenth-Century Books of Hours: Walters Ms. 239." Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 45 (1987): 44-102, fig. 56 (fol. 116v).
Marrow, James H., Henri L. M. Defoer, Anne S. Korteweg, and Wilhelmina C.M. Wüstefeld. The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting. New York: George Braziller, 1990, pp. 188-189, no. 52.
Principal cataloger: Marrow, James
Cataloger: Devine, Alex
Editors: Herbert, Lynley; Noel, William
Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane
Conservators: Owen, Linda; Quandt, Abigail
Contributors: Bockrath, Diane; Dutschke, Consuelo; Emery, Doug; Noel, William; Tabritha, Ariel; Toth, Michael B.; Valle, Chiara
The Walters Art Museum
Licensed for use under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Access Rights, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode. It is requested that copies of any published articles based on the information in this data set be sent to the curator of manuscripts, The Walters Art Museum, 600 North Charles Street, Baltimore MD 21201.